One Thousand Years of Dialogue: the Historical Foundations of European Identity

I. A seductive fallacy

Only after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 could democracy be called a European standard

II. The origins of Europe as an idea

The Roman Empire in the 2nd Century AD, at its greatest extent
The Battle of Tours/Poitiers, here in an 1830 painting by Eugène Delacroix

III. One Thousand Years of Dialogue

The ‘Triumph of Galatea’, by Raphael. The influence of Classicism became preponderant in Renaissance art
Roman Law remained deeply constitutive in Europe even after the fall of the Western Empire

IV. The dangers of misinterpretation

An EU flag raised at the Ukrainian frontlines

Writer, Berlin-based.

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